As much as a college or a university is supposed to be a bastion of free and expressive thought, it is unfortunate that a student can find him or herself accused of misconduct related to taking a opinion or stance in various capacities including on an academic work that people at the school, be it the professor or other students or administrators would take exception to and then in doing so, misconduct charges could be filed against that student.
As ridiculous as that may be, that does take place. Is a school within its rights to do so? Possibly not. It is a serious allegation. It can result in serious short and long-term consequences. You can't depend on the school to do the right thing. Just by facing such an allegation, you should have some sense as to whether the school is being reasonable or unreasonable.
Having an experienced attorney advisor will be your best ally and help you understand your rights and to protect your interest through the process. They can also help you understand and navigate the process. They should be involved as early as possible if you're facing an allegation involving, say, a disagreement with an opinion, a political opinion, or anything related.