As a parent of a high school student, you have immense hope for the opportunities in front of them. Whether you may envisage them as a doctor, lawyer, or engineer after a period of university studies or starting their own business and becoming a successful entrepreneur, all of these begin with a rewarding high school experience and subsequent diploma.
Parents understand that part of adolescence is making mistakes and overcoming them. Honest, hard-working kids get caught in bad situations. Infractions that once might have merited a call home, like shoving another student or cursing, are increasingly common grounds for suspension and expulsion in schools with zero-tolerance disciplinary policies. Occasionally, schools blame students for misconduct they didn't commit, categorizing your child alongside perennial offenders and leaving them with unjust penalties and consequences that will affect them for the rest of their lives.
You don't want a misunderstanding or miscommunication to threaten your child's future, but it can in some New York school districts. Therefore, it's imperative that you know how school districts handle repeat misbehavior and how it can negatively affect your child and impair their future.
Avoiding Alternative Education Placement in New York
When your child is accused of misbehaving at their New York high school, punishments can be as minor as an extra class assignment or could be as severe as expulsion. Penalties should depend on the severity of the alleged misconduct, but that isn't always the case. Your child will be at the mercy of the school administration and disciplinary boards that seek to protect their—not your child's—reputation.
One option that New York school districts have at their disposal for students on whom they have levied recurring punishments is to send them to an alternative education program (AEP) for a length of time. While this is an inconspicuous solution to help misbehaved schoolchildren, the problem is that New York AEPs can lead to unjust, harsh punishments, branding your child as a dejected delinquent.
Some students excel in an AEP, and it gives them a good stepping stone toward remediation, but that is only a fraction of the cases. Placement in such a program can affect many other students very poorly, causing them to take on unhealthy habits and have an identity crisis. Moreover, individual New York AEPs may have their own problems, including an outdated curriculum, substandard instruction, lack of quality support services, and lousy student culture.
If your child faces a New York high school disciplinary proceeding, the risk of them being relegated to an AEP is real and significant. To help you navigate the New York high school disciplinary system and keep your child out of an AEP, call student defense attorney Joseph D. Lento and the Lento Law Firm at (888) 535-3686 or fill out the online consultation form. They have years of paramount experience and have successfully defended high school students in New York and nationwide.
Student Codes of Conduct for School Discipline in New York
New York high schools don't just discipline as they see fit. In 2000, the New York legislature adopted the Safe Schools Against Violence in Education (SAVE) law. Chapter 16, Title II, Article 55, Section 2801 of New York's Education Law details how each district must create a code of conduct governing student behavior and activities occurring on school property.
Your child's school's student code of conduct is your first line of defense against unjust school discipline. Your student defense attorney will obtain and review that code of conduct to ensure that your school adheres to it and doesn't impose sanctions beyond its reach. The code of conduct should list prohibited behavior for students and consequences for committing this behavior. Although each school and district may differ in its code of conduct, some common prohibited behaviors according to New York's Education Law include:
- Student or teacher assault
- Weapons at school
- Drug, alcohol, and tobacco use
- Computer misuse
In addition to prohibited behaviors, the code of conduct will list consequences for students who have committed these behaviors. Your student disciplinary defense attorney can use the student code of conduct to ensure that your child's school administration doesn't impose sanctions beyond the severity of the infractions and beyond the school's reach. Typically, consequences include:
Loss of privileges: Students lose classroom privileges or are removed from extracurricular activities.
Behavioral counseling: The school establishes regular communication between the student, their parents or guardians, and a school administrator to discuss misbehavior and set expectations in line with the school's code of conduct.
Detention: Students must remain after school, show up before school, or on a Saturday to complete their schoolwork.
Exclusion: Some school districts allow teachers to exclude a student from their class for misbehavior, and the student is reassigned to another teacher.
Community service: Students must complete a set number of hours of service work to either the school or community.
In-school suspension (ISS): Students are removed from their regular classrooms and sent to an ISS classroom to complete assignments for one or more days.
Out-of-school suspension (OSS): Students are barred from attending school for no more than ten days.
Removal to an interim alternative education setting (IAES): Students are temporarily assigned to an alternative education setting, usually lasting no longer than 45 days.
Expulsion: Students are prohibited from attending their normal school for a certain period of time. Depending on the student's age and the school district, expelled students are required to attend an AEP.
Emergency Removals in New York Schools
Schools are also allowed to conduct emergency removals from school in certain cases. In New York, schools may carry out an emergency AEP placement on “violent pupils.” Section 3214 of New York's Education Law deems violent pupils as students who:
- Are elementary or secondary students under the age of 21
- Commit acts of violence upon students, teachers, administrators, or other school employees on school property
- Possess, brandish, or threaten to use a firearm, knife, explosive or incendiary bomb, or other dangerous instruments capable of causing physical injury or death
- Knowingly and intentionally damage or destroy the personal property of a teacher, administrator, school district employee, or school district property
Hearing Process for Suspension and Expulsions in New York
Section 3214 of New York's Education Law states that a student who is “insubordinate or disorderly or violent or disruptive, or whose conduct otherwise endangers the safety, morals, health or welfare of others” can be suspended from school. Removal from school may not last more than five school days unless the student and student's parent or guardian have had an opportunity for a fair hearing.
Upon “reasonable notice,” a student will have the right to retain legal representation, question witnesses against the student, and present witnesses for testimony on their behalf. The superintendent will determine the manner of and preside over the hearing or designate a hearing officer to conduct the hearing. The hearing officer will maintain audio or written recordings of the hearing and make recommendations based on the allegations as to the appropriate measure of discipline for the superintendent.
The student and their attorney may appeal the disciplinary measures to the New York Board of Education, which will adopt in whole or in part the superintendent's decision.
If a student is between the ages of 6 and 16—or 6 to 17 in some school districts—the school must arrange alternative academic instruction during the suspension's full term. This may occur in school in a separate area or out of school—either off-site or at home. If the student is 17 or older, a school doesn't have to provide alternate academic instruction, although some schools will.
The Manifestation Determination Review in New York High Schools
A “change in placement” is when a school suspends a student for more than ten consecutive school days or 11 total days in the same school year for discipline related to a pattern of misbehaviors. The school administration will conduct a Manifestation Determination Review (MDR) when this occurs. The purpose of the MDR is to determine whether a student's disability caused the behavior that led to the suspension or if the behavior resulted from the school's failure to implement the student's Individualized Educational Plan (IEP).
Typically, the MDR is conducted after the superintendent's disciplinary determination and must happen within ten school days of the suspension, resulting in a disciplinary change in placement. The MDR team, consisting of school representatives with knowledge of the student, relevant members of the district's Committee on Special Education, and the student's parent or guardian, will consider all relevant information in the student's file to understand if there is a connection between misbehavior and a potential disability.
If the student has regular contact with behavioral counselors or other healthcare providers, it will be a good idea if they are present in the meeting.
Some disabilities include:
- Emotional disabilities
- Hearing impairment
- Intellectual disabilities
- Learning disabilities
- Orthopedic disabilities
- Speech or language impairment
- Traumatic brain injuries
- Visual impairment
According to New York's Office of Children and Family Services, students with disabilities can receive a suspension lasting fewer than ten days to the same extent as students who don't have a disability. If the school's MDR team decides that an incident or pattern of misbehavior was caused by a student's disability or an IEP not being implemented, the student has the right to return to school immediately. If the MDR team doesn't discover a disability, the suspension will continue. If the suspension is longer than ten school days, a superintendent may order a student to an IAES.
Challenging the MDR Process
A student or their parent or guardian may seek an expedited hearing if they don't agree with the MDR team's findings, procedures, or results thereof. The student and their parent or guardian can file a due process complaint, including the reasoning behind the disagreement and any supporting documentation.
The expedited process requires:
- Convening a resolution session within seven calendar days of receiving the complaint
- In-person hearing within 20 school days
- Decision made by hearing officer within ten school days following the hearing
The student will remain in the IAES pending the outcome.
New York Students' Rights and Program Requirements
Students placed in IAES have rights. A student placed in the temporary program must:
- Continue to receive educational services to participate in the general education curriculum, aligned with New York State Education Department (NYSED) standards of mathematics, writing, social studies, reading, and science.
- The work or instruction can't be “busy work” or assignments below their academic progress or grade level.
- Academic counseling required before entrance into the program must continue throughout IAES.
- A student will receive, if necessary, a functional behavioral assessment or behavioral intervention services designed to address recurrent violations.
- Academic, personal, and career guidance counseling should be provided as needed during the program.
Other Alternative Education Programs for Disciplined New York Youth
New York's AEPs provide additional options for students at risk of dropping out of school to remain engaged in a learning environment that focuses on their particular skills, abilities, and learning styles. NYSED's Student Support Services (SSS) office is responsible for three alternative education programs: Alternative Transition Program (ATP), Alternative High School Equivalency Preparation Program (AHSEP), and Education of Incarcerated Youth Program (IY).
ATP: For high school-age students at risk of dropping out, this program provides at least 27.5 education hours per week to meet the full-time attendance requirement.
AHSEP: High school students between the ages of 16 and 20 may obtain a High School Equivalency Diploma through 15 hours of weekly education on the grounds they:
- Are of legal age to stop attending (at least 16 and beyond compulsory age)
- Earned less than 2.75 high school credits
- Tested between 8th and 10th-grade levels in Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE) exams in Reading and Mathematics
- Experienced family or social situations distracting them from academic achievement
- Previously demonstrated poor attendance
IY: Incarcerated youth under the age of 21 who have not received a high school diploma can receive publicly-funded educational services in the school district where the correctional facility is located per Section 3202 of New York's Education Law.
The Downside of New York's Exclusionary Discipline
Getting placed in an IAEP, even if it's only for 45 days, can enormously impact a child's future. It can slow down their academic progress, spur more behavioral problems, and lead to students dropping out and failing to obtain their high school diplomas. Being isolated from their friends and teachers can also affect emotional health, which further impacts academic performance. Although removal from traditional educational programs is meant to be a positive behavior management tool, it can lead to adverse outcomes.
A study conducted by the Center for Court Innovation concluded that schools tend to overuse zero-tolerance approaches to discipline and safety. Analyzing figures from more than 800 New York City public middle and high schools found that students are 50 percent more likely to incur consequences such as poor academic performance, dropout, and arrest. Suspensions were also disparately applied, influenced by race, disability, and economic status, thus perpetuating what students' rights advocates call the “school-to-prison pipeline.”
If your child faces placement in an IAEP or other AEP, you must become involved to prevent these counterproductive consequences. Their future depends on it.
Protecting Your Child Experiencing Disciplinary Issues at Their New York School
As a parent, you have a better chance of forestalling your child from an IAEP if you stay active and remain engaged during the disciplinary process. When you become aware of an issue, it's critical to:
- Contact the school immediately and transcribe as much information as possible.
- Call student defense attorney Joseph D. Lento. With his years of experience and dedicated team, once he has the details about your situation, he and his team can begin working with you on a strategy.
- Ensure that your child is alright. Speak to them about the incident and ask them to write down what they remember, including interactions with students, teachers, or school administration officials.
- Collect any evidence you can, including emails, texts, social media posts, and visual documentation, such as photos if your child has sustained a physical injury during the incident.
- Refer to the school's code of conduct to get more information on how the disciplinary process may proceed.
- Record your contacts with school officials and anyone else. Note the date, time, and length of conversations.
- Keep all written and electronic correspondence relating to the disciplinary process and make copies.
It's vital that you consult with a student defense attorney as early in the process as possible. Once you know that this issue could lead to severe disciplinary consequences, including removal from school to an IAEP, you should contact a professional to help you navigate the issue.
How an Experienced Student Defense Attorney Can Help You
When your student is facing a temporary placement in a New York IAEP, you might think you can handle it yourself. You may even feel the process isn't a big deal. After all, your student child isn't expelled and can return once the placement terminates, so why bother to prevent it? These misconceptions can lead to the long-term consequences noted above. You don't want your child to fall behind and miss out on the college experience or fail to get a head start on their occupational careers.
Furthermore, you may think that school administration officials, MDR team members, and other school employees aren't civil authorities, so you don't need an attorney, right? The rules supporting suspension, expulsion, school discipline, IAEPs, and AEPs are state law in New York. School boards must adhere to these laws, including the district's code of conduct. If you don't fully understand the New York Education Code or your particular school's code of conduct, you may struggle to guarantee your child's rights during an IAEP disciplinary change in the placement decision process.
The rules surrounding school discipline in New York are complex. It takes a proven student defense attorney to understand these laws and apply them to your child's specific situation.
How a Student Defense Attorney Joseph D. Lento Can Help Your Child Avoid IAEP Placement
While many attorneys tout their legal prowess in front of judges and juries, those skills don't translate into proven tactics to address student disciplinary matters. Few lawyers have demonstrated themselves to be successful student defense attorneys like Joseph D. Lento. He coaches students and their parents and guardians to prepare them for MDR hearings and works to negotiate with school administration officials before an IAEP is recommended as behavior remediation. Even if you can't have an attorney present with you at the meetings, they can still be an invaluable asset to you and your child as you navigate this tricky situation.
An attorney specializing in student discipline can help you make sense of the New York Education Code and its nuances to know what your child's rights are and how to protect them. A legal specialist in this area can also read the code of conduct for your child's school district and ensure that school administrators follow disciplinary procedures correctly. You don't want the school to abuse their discretionary authority and send your hard-working child to an IAEP for a minor offense that can be handled by school administration officials in a traditional situation.
Joseph D. Lento and his team at the Lento Law Firm have assisted countless students across New York and the U.S. in disciplinary matters, allowing them to stand up to their schools and protect their rights effectively. They have the knowledge and experience necessary to support you and your child through a challenging situation with your school board and disciplinary body. Contact the Lento Law Firm by calling 888-535-3686 or visit the online consultation form to protect your child's high school education and future.