Yes, unfortunately, an academic disciplinary record can prevent someone from obtaining employment. When employers are considering candidates, it's a highly competitive world today. A person might be one of a thousand or even thousands of applicants. If an employer has any concern or sees any black mark on a student's background or record, it's very easy for them to just go to the next candidate.
In addition, a finding of academic responsibility can involve implications of dishonesty or lack of integrity. The concern for an employer would be like, "Is this really the kind of person that we're looking to have work for us?" Unfortunately, in many instances, it very well may not be regardless of how stellar that person's candidacy or application will be otherwise. Very much is at stake in academic misconduct cases at college. Both in the short and long term, it's incredibly important to make sure that you handle the matter as effectively as possible so that you're not facing these potentially severe short and long term consequences.